post@axiomseminar.com

For Immediate Release

Logic & Reason in a time of crisis.


“Governments love crises because when the people are fearful they are more willing to give up freedoms for promises that the government will take care of them.”

- Dr. Ron Paul

March 20, 2020


The Axiom Seminar is issuing an evidence based statement of inspiration and truth, reaffirming that logic and reason are humanities greatest hopes moving forward. Following the initial outbreak late last year, the world has been over taken with misinformation and fear. The media has mentioned covid-19 3000% more times then previous outbreaks.1 With all this attention almost no attention has been given on the bodies innate ability to heal.


Addressing the Munich Security Conference on Feb 15, 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said:


     “… we’re not just fighting an epidemic; we’re fighting an infodemic …

     This is a time for facts, not fear.

     This is a time for rationality.” 2


This is a critical time for the principle of chiropractic to emerge amidst a pandemic of fear. Chiropractors are uniquely educated and positioned to help their communities understand the principle of chiropractic and elevate above the hysteria. Fear affects the immune response, by disrupting a normal circadian increase in natural killer cells. 3 Therefore, in order to navigate through this pandemic, we must base our thinking on facts and logic, with as much knowledge as possible.


Fighting FEAR with FACTS.


Concern and empathy for all, especially for those at a greater risk, as with any infectious disease, is warranted by Doctors of Chiropractic. Nonetheless, knowing the data helps battle irrationality. As of March 20, 2020, it is estimated that 80.9% of cases are mild and the average disease deaths per day worldwide is estimated at 144 (we are still in the start of the global  pandemic so this number is likely to change.)


To contextualise the mortality rate, consider that on a given day 26,283 people die of cancer; 49,041 people die of cardiovascular diseases; 4,383 people die of diabetes; suicide takes on average 2,191 lives, mosquitoes take the lives of over 2,740 people, and HUMANS kill an average of 1,287 fellow people, every single day.


In terms of deaths from influenza-induced lower respiratory tract infections, a 2019 study estimated 99,000 - 200,000 deaths for the 2017-2018 flu season. This is not to suggest that we should not live without intellectual precaution, practice basic hygienic measures or empathise with anyone affected by the pandemic. We must however advocate INTELLECTUAL HYGEINE.


Fundamental Truth & The Role of Chiropractic


“While other professions are concerned with changing the environment to suit the weakened body, chiropractic is concerned with strengthening the body to suit the environment.”

-BJ Palmer


The body is a self healing, self regulating ecosystem. The nervous system controls, coordinates and adapts all functions of the body. Vertebral subluxations obstruct and interfere with that process.


Chiropractic colleges, the federal government, and numerous associations define the unique and non-duplicative role and responsibility of chiropractic, as the detection and correction of vertebral subluxation because of the resultant neurological and biochemical interference. Chiropractors are not primary care physicians, but rather separate and distinct from medicine as a portal of entry health care profession. To suggest chiropractic is a treatment for infectious disease is outside of the role of chiropractic. One of several significant roles the chiropractor can play during this or any pandemic, is to teach his or her patients HOW to think, ask questions, and to focus attention away from fear and towards the bodies innate ability to heal.


Published 17, March 2020 in Nature Medicine, is a detailed report of how the patient’s immune system responded to covid-19.  Professor Kedzierska research shows:


     “that even though COVID-19 is caused by a new virus, in an otherwise healthy person, a robust immune response across different cell types      was associated with clinical recovery, similar to what we see in influenza,”4


There are no known cures for the corona virus. Therefore it is of the utmost importance to focus our attention and the publics attention, away from the hysteria to what can actually be done now, in order for us all to adapt to the environment optimally.


Chiropractic represents a non duplicatable component of heathcare for optimizing the bodies inborn ability to heal and adapt. Timely and consistent access to chiropractic care is important for humanity to adapt and optimise performance whether in a crisis or not. Chiropractic does not claim to diagnose, treat, or cure any condition, including the Coronavirus or conditions caused by COVID-19.


Nothing in this position statement absolves the chiropractor from empathy, and/or from knowing the limits of his or her authority and skill, and from determining the safety and appropriateness of chiropractic care.



Chiropractic and Immune health


During times of stress or injury, the central nervous and endocrine systems come into play and transmits messages to one another.


     “An imbalance or alterations in these systems in response to disease, stress, injury and/or metabolic alterations can lead to significant changes in immune      responsiveness and susceptibility to infections…” 5


Axiom Seminar encourages jurisdictions, legal authorities and associations at all levels globally to acknowledge and respect that chiropractic is a distinct and important service to humanity whether in pandemic or not. In addition, we strongly appose the WFCs recent statement concerning chiropractic and immune function that:


     “No credible, scientific evidence that spinal adjustment / manipulation has any clinically relevant effect on the immune system was found. At the time of writing, there exists no credible, scientific evidence that would permit claims of effectiveness for conferring or enhancing immunity through spinal adjustment /           manipulation to be made in communications by chiropractors.” 6


Without defining their terms, and what level of evidence is accepted, their statement is of no clinical or professional value. Basic neuroanatomy, peer reviewed literature, and other scientific publications has together documented the role of the nerve system in nearly all levels of human performance, including immune function. Reducing the role of chiropractic to the treatment of muskuloskelatal condition is unscientific, unethical and will contribute to the burden society is facing ahead. A partial list of 109 references about biomechanical integrity and immune function is provided below. This quantity of evidence not only warrants further investigation, it also dismisses the WFC statement as ignorant to the literature.


Conclusion


As of this day of the press release, the best estimate is a total of 10,405 deaths in relation to the coronavirus. By contrast, tuberculosis, an old disease not much discussed anymore, killed nearly 1.5 million people in 2018. Since we understand that better questions will yield better answers, let us begin with a great question: Why is there no media attention for any of the previously mentioned pandemics or what can be done to strengthen the immune system and empower the public from fear?


That is not to say the disease is harmless. There is no doubt people will continue to die from coronavirus. No one should feel guilty about closing their clinic and no one should feel obligated to put themselves or elderly patients at risk.


We urge all humans to be asking better questions for themselves, and to not allow the appeal to emotional hype, hysteria and misinformation as an excuse to give up liberty and freedom or worse, to ignore the role chiropractic plays in salutogenesis. Humanity must do what it takes to stay safe, through a evidence informed solution based on reason. Without this, fear will lead us to a maladaptive state both biologically and professionally.


Jonathan Verderame Bsc. D.C.

Founder Axiom Seminar

post@axiomseminar.com





Immunity References - Mccoy Press


     1.     Riley, G.W. Osteopathic Success in the Treatment of Influenza and Pneumonia. American Osteopathic Association – Chicago Session. July 1919. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, August 1919. 


     2.     Riley, G.W. Osteopathic Success in the Treatment of Influenza and Pneumonia. American Osteopathic Association – Chicago Session. July 1919. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, August 1919. Special Reprint Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Vol. 100. No. 5, May 2000. 


     3.     Noll, DR., Shores, JH., Gamber, RG. Benefits of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Pneumonia. Journal of the American Osteopathic Assocaition. Vol. 100. No. 12. December 2000. 


     4.     Breithaupt, T., Harris, K., Ellis, J. Thoracic lymphatic pumping and the efficacy of influenza vaccination in healthy young and elderly populations. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Vol. 101. No. 1. January 2001. 


     5.     Noll DR, Degenhardt BF, Stuart MK, Werden S, McGovern RJ, Johnson JC. The effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on immune response to the influenza vaccine in nursing homes residents: a pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):74-6. 


     6.     Degenhardt BF, Kuchera ML. Update on osteopathic medical concepts and the lymphatic system. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):97-100. 
Allen TW. Coming full circle: osteopathic manipulative treatment and immunity. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1998 Apr;98(4):204. 


     7.     Schmidt IC. Osteopathic manipulative therapy as a primary factor in the management of upper, middle, and pararespiratory infections. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1982 Feb;81(6):382-8. 


     8.     Ward, EA. Influenza and Its Osteopathic Management. Eastern Osteopathic Association’s Seventeenth Annual Convention. New York, April 3, 1937. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Sept. 1937. 


     9.     Ward, EA. Influenza and Its Osteopathic Management. Eastern Osteopathic Association’s Seventeenth Annual Convention. New York, April 3, 1937. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Sept. 1937. Special Reprint. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol. 100. No. 5. May 2000. 


     10.     Smith, KR. One hundred thousand cases of influenza with a death rate of one- fortieth of that officially reported under conventional medical treatment. Annual Convention of the American Association of Clinical Research, New York. Oct. 18, 1919. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. January, 1920. 


     11.     Smith, KR. One hundred thousand cases of influenza with a death rate of one- fortieth of that officially reported under conventional medical treatment. Annual Convention of the American Association of Clinical Research, New York. Oct. 18, 1919. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. January, 1920. Special Reprints. J. Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol. 100. No. 5. May 2000. 


     12.     Patterson, M. Osteopathic methods and the great flu pandemic of 1917-1918. JAOA (The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association) May 2000; 100(5):309-10 


     13.     Masarsky, C. 1918. Dynamic Chiropractic. November 17, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 24 http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/21/24/01.html 


     14.     Kent, C. Chiropractic and infectious disease -- an historical perspective. The Chiropractic Journal April 2003. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2003/apr/apr2003kent.htm 


     15.     Harte, D. Alternative to the sting of a failed flu vaccine. The Chiropractic Journal. March 2004. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2004/mar/harte.htm 


     16.     Kent, C. Neuroimmunology and chiropractic. The Chiropractic Journal. October 1995. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/1995/oct/oct1995kent.htm 


     17.     Lerche Davis, J. Flu Shot Scare Fuels Scams. WebMd 11/2/2004 
http://dailynews.att.net/cgi- bin/health?e=pub&dt=041102&cat=women&st=women103746&src=webmd# 


     18.     Lawrence, S. How to Dodge the Flu Without a Shot. Even without a flu shot, you can still do something to protect yourself. WebMd. October 22, 2004. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/95/103481.htm 


     19.     Whelan et al: The effects of chiropractic manipulation on salivary cortisol levels. JMPT. 2002 (25)3 


     20.     Takeda et al: Long term remission and alleviation of symptoms in allergy and Crohn’s disease patients following spinal adjustment for reduction of vertebral subluxations. JVSR Vol 4. # 4. 2002 


     22.     Selano, Grostic et al: The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. CRJ. Vol 3. # 1. 1994. 


     23.     Brennan et al: Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces. JMPT Vol. 15 # 2 Feb. 1992. 


25. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Kaltinger CJ, Lohr GE, Glendening C, Hondras MA, McGregor M, Triano JJ “Enhanced Phagocytic Cell Respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation: Potential Role of Substance P” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991; 14(7): 399-407.

     26.     Tuchin PJ “The Effect of Chiropractic Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Salivary Cortisol Levels.” Australian Journal of Chiropractic and Osteopathy 2: 1998; pp. 86-92. 


     27.     Vora GS, Bates HA “The Effects of Spinal Manipulation on the Immune System (A Preliminary Report)” The ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1980; 14: S103-105. 


     28.     Masarsky CS, Weber M “Chiropractic and Lung Volumes - A Retrospective Study” ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1986; 20(9): 65-67. 


     29.     Kessinger R “Changes in Pulmonary Function Associated with Upper Cervical Specific Chiropractic Care” J Vertebral Subluxation Res. 1997;1(3): 43-49. 


     30.     Menon M, Plaugher G, Jansen R, Dhami MSI, Sutowski J “Effect of Thoracic Spinal Adjustment on Peripheral Airway Function in Normal Subjects - A Pilot Study” Conference Proceedings of the Chiropractic Centennial Foundation 1995; July 6-8: 244-245. 


     31.     Masarsky CS, Weber M “Chiropractic and Lung Volumes - A Retrospective Study” ACA Journal of Chiropractic 1986; 20(9): 65-67. 


     32.     Allen JM “The Effects of Chiropractic on the Immune System: A Review of Literature” Chiropractic Journal of Australia 1993; 23: 132-135. 


     33.     Rhodes WR: "The Official History of Chiropractic in Texas." Texas Chiropractic Association. Austin, TX. 1978. 


     34.     "Chiropractic Statistics." The Chiropractic Research and Review Service. Burton Shields Press. Indianapolis, IN. 1925.

     35.     Wells BF, Janse J: "Chiropractic Practice. Volume 1. Infectious Diseases." National College of Chiropractic. Chicago, IL. 1942. 


     36.     Kent C: "Neuroimmunology -- an update." The Chiropractic Journal. August, 2001. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/2001/aug/aug2001kent.htm 


     37.     Kent C: "The mental impulse-biochemical and immunologic aspects." The Chiropractic Journal. February, 1999. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/tcj/1999/feb/feb1999kent.htm 


     38.     Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES: "The sympathetic nerve-an integrative interface between the two supersystems: the brain and the immune system." Pharmacol Rev 2000;52:295-638. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/cgi/reprint/52/4/595.pdf 


39. Brennan PC, et al. Immunologic correlates of reduced spinal mobility.

Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation

(FCER):118.
40.Todres-Masarsky M, Masarsky CS. The Somatovisceral Interface: Further

Evidence. In Masarsky CS, Todres-Masarsky M (editors). Somatovisceral Aspects of Chiropractic: An Evidence-Based Approach, 2001, Churchill Livingstone, New York.

     41.     Korr IM: "Andrew Taylor Still memorial lecture: research and practice -- a century later." J Am Osteopath Assoc 1974 73:362.Murray DR, Irwin M, Reardon CA, et al: "Sympathetic and immune interactions during dynamic exercise. Mediation via a beta 2 - adrenergic-dependent mechanism." Circulation 1992 86(1):203.

     42.     Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, et al: "Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function." Immunol Rev 1987 100:225. 


     43.     Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, Madden KS: "Fundamental aspects of neural-immune signaling." Psychother Psychosom 1993 60(1):46. 


     44.     Kolata G: "Nerve cells tied to immune system." The New York Times May 13, 1993.

     45.     Hosoi J, Murphy GF, Egan CL et al: "Regulation of Langerhans cell function by nerves containing calcination gene-related peptide." Nature 1993 363(6425):159. 


     46.     Undem BJ: "Neural-immunologic interactions in asthma." Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 1994 29(2):59. 


     47.     Sternberg EM, Chrousos GP, Wilder RL, Gold PW: "The stress response and the regulation of inflammatory disease." Ann Intern Med 1992 117(10):854. 


     48.     Fricchoine GL, Stefano GB: "The stress response and autoimmunoregulation." Adv Neuroimmunol 1994 4(1):13. 


49. Ottaway CA, Husband AJ: "Central nervous system influences on lymphocyte migration." Brain Behav Immun 1992 6(2):97.

50. Weihe E, Krekel J: "The neuroimmune connection in human tonsils." Brain Behav Immun 1991 5(1):41.

     51.     Grossman Z, Heberman RB, Livnat S: "Neural modulation of immunity: conditioning phenomena and the adaptability of lymphoid cells." Int J Neurosci 1992 64(1-4):275. 


     52.     Fidelibus, J.; An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS. 1989 Vol. 12 Pgs. 289-292 


     53.     Davison, S.; Parkin-Smith, G.F.; The possible effect of cervical chiropractic manipulation on short-term lymphocytic response - a pilot study WFC'S 7TH BIENNIAL CONGRESS CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, MAY 1-3,
2003. 2003 Vol. 7th Edt. Pgs. 278-80 


     54.     Ali, S.; Hayek, R.; Holland, R.; Mckelvey, S.E.; Boyce, K.; EFFECT OF CHIROPRACTIC TREATMENT ON THE ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2002 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SPINAL MANIPULATION. 2002 OCT Vol. Pgs. 


     55.     Pickar, J.G.; Kang, Y-M.; Kenney, M.J.; Inflammation of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Reflexively Increases Sympathetic Nerve Activity to Spleen and Kidney THE JOURNAL OF CHIROPRACTIC EDUCATION. 2002 SPR Vol. 16(1) Pgs. 44-5 


     56.     Davison, S.M.; Parkin-Smith, G.F.; Immunological profiles in asymptomatic subjects after chiropractic cervical spine manipulation PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORLD FEDERATION OF CHIROPRACTIC CONGRESS. 2001 MAY Vol. 6 Pgs. 264-5 


     57.     Hoiriis, K.T.; Edenfield, D.; Chiropractic and The Immune Response: A Literature Review JOURNAL OF VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION RESEARCH. 2000 OCT Vol. 4(1) Pgs.

     58.     Martin, C.; Chiropractic and HIV Infection JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHIROPRACTIC ASSOCIATION. 1995 DEC Vol. 32(12) Pgs. 41-4 


     59.     Spector NH. Anatomic and Physiologic connections between the central nervous system and the immune systems. Reprinted. In: Research Forum 1987;103-17. 


     60.     Besedovsky HO, Del Rey A. Physiological Implications of the Immune-Neuro- endocrine Network. Psychoneuroimmunology, Academic Press, Inc. Second Edition. 1991;589-603. 


     61.     van Breda WM, van Breda JM. A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. J Chirop Res. 1989;5(4):101-103. 


     62.     Rose-Aymon S, Aymon M, Prochaska-Moss G, Moss R, Rebne R, Nielsen K. The relationship between intensity of chiropractic care and the incidence of childhood diseases. J Chirop Res 1989;5(3):70-7 . 


     63.     Reubi JC, Horisberger U, Kappeler A, Laissue JA. Localization of Receptors for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Somatostatin, and Substance P in distinct compartments of human lymphoid organs. Blood 1998;92(1):191-197. 


     64.     Giron LT, Crutcher KA, Davis JN. Lymph nodes-A possible site for sympathetic neuronal regulation of immune response. Annals of Neurology 1980;8(5):520- 525. 


     65.     Murray DR., Irwin M, Rearden CA, Ziegler M, Motulsky H, Maisel AS. Sympathetic and Immune Interactions During Dynamic Exercise Mediation Via a Beta2-Adrenergic-Dependent Mechanism. Circulation 1992; 86:203-213. 


     66.     Brennan PC, Graham MA, Triano JJ, Hondras MA, Anderson RJ,. Lymphocyte profiles in patients with chronic low back pain enrolled in a clinical trial. J Manip Physiol Ther 1994 17(4): 219-227. 


     67.     Lohr GE, O’Brien JC, Nodine DL, Brennan PC. Natural killer cells as an outcome of chiropractic treatment efficacy. In: Proceedings of the Internationa1 Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1990:109-12. 


     68.     Injeyan, S. Studies on the effects of spinal manipulation on the immune response. Internet WWW 1999; http//www.c3r.org/research/injeyan-R/injeyan-r.html 


     69.     Ottaway CA, Husband AJ. Central nervous system influences on Lymphocyte Migration. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 1992;6(2):97-116. 


     70.     Neveu PJ, Le Moal M. Physiological basis for neuroimmunomodulation. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1990;4:281-305. 


     71.     Giron LT, Crutcher KA, Davis JN. Lymph nodes-A possible site for sympathetic neuronal regulation of immune response. Annals of Neurology 1980;8(5):520- 525. 


     72.     McCain HW, Lamster IB, Bozzone JM, Gribic JT. Beta-Endorphin modulates human immune activity via nonopiate receptor mechanisms. Life Science 1982;31:1619-24. 


     73.     Payan DG, Brewster DR., Goetzl EJ. Specific Stimulation of Human Lymphocytes by Substance P. J. Immunol. 1983;131(4):1613-15. 


     74.     Payan DG, Brewster DR, Missirian-Bastian A,Goetzl EJ. Substance P Recognition by a Subset of Human T Lymphocytes. J Clin Invest. 1984;74:1532- 39. 


     75.     Mertelsmann R,Welte K. Human Interleukin 2: molecular biology, physiology and clinical possibilities. Immunobiol.1986;172:400-19. 


     76.     Badalamente MA, Dee R, Ghillani R, Chien P, Daniels K. Mechanical Stimulation of Dorsal Root Ganglia Induces Increased Production of Substance P:A Mechanism for Pain Following Nerve Root Compromise. Spine. 1987;12(6):552-5. 


     77.     Lindholm D, Neumann R, Meyer M, Thoenen H. Interleukin-1 regulates synthesis of nerve growth factor in non-neuronal cells of rat sciatic nerve. Nature 1987;330:658-659. 


     78.     Lindholm D, Neumann R, Hengerer B, Thoenen H. Interleukin-1 increases stability and transcription of mRNA encoding nerve growth factor in cultured rat fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 1988;263:16348-16351. 


     79.     Neveu PJ, Le Moal M. Physiological basis for neuroimmunomodulation. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1990;4:281-305. 


     80.     Besedovsky HO, Del Rey A. Physiological Implications of the Immune-Neuro- endocrine Network. Psychoneuroimmunology, Academic Press, Inc. Second Edition. 1991;589-603. 


     81.     Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Triano JJ, Fritz TE,Wardip CL, Hondras MA. Immunologic correlates of reduced spinal mobility: preliminary observations in a dog model. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation.Arlington, Virginia. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1991:118-21. 


     82.     Roszman TL,Carlson SL. Neurotransmitters and Molecular signaling in the Immune Response. Psychoneuroimmunology, Second Edition. Academic Press, Inc 1991:311-33. 


     83.     Murray DR., Irwin M, Rearden CA, Ziegler M, Motulsky H, Maisel AS. Sympathetic and Immune Interactions During Dynamic Exercise Mediation Via a Beta2-Adrenergic-Dependent Mechanism. Circulation 1992; 86:203-213. 


     84.     Ottaway CA, Husband AJ. Central nervous system influences on Lymphocyte Migration. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 1992;6(2):97-116. 


     85.     Wells MR, Racis SP, Vaidya U. Changes in Plasma Cytokines Associated with Peripheral Nerve Injury. J Neuroimmunol. 1992;39:261-8. 


     86.     Felten DL, Felten SY, Bellinger DL, Madden KS. Fundamental Aspects of Neural-Immune Signaling. Psychother Psychosom 1993;60:46-56. 


     87.     Bellinger DL, Lorton D, Brouxhon S, Felten S, Felten DL. The significance of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in immunomodulation. Adv Neuroimmunol 1996;6(1):5-27. 


     88.     Herzberg U,Murtaugh MP, Carroll D, Beitz AJ. Spinal Cord NMDA Receptors Modulate Peripheral Immune Responses and Spinal Cord c-fos Expression after Immune Challenge in Rats Subjected to Unilateral Mononeuropathy. J Neurosci. 1996;16(2):730-43. 


     89.     Reubi JC, Horisberger U, Kappeler A, Laissue JA. Localization of Receptors for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Somatostatin, and Substance P in distinct compartments of human lymphoid organs. Blood 1998;92(1):191-197. 


     90.     Alcorn SM. Chiropractic treatment and antibody levels. J Aust Chiropractors Assoc 1977. 11(3):18-37. 


     91.     Vora G, Bates H. The effects of spinal manipulation on the immune system. Am Chiropr Assoc J Chiropr 1980; 4:S103-5 


     92.     Luisetto G, Spano D, Steiner W. et al. Immunoreactive ACTH, beta-endorphin and calcitonin before and after manipulative treatment of patients with cervical arthrosis and Barre’s syndrome. In: Napolitano E., editor.Research in chiropractic: Proceedings of ICA International Congress. Washington, DC: International Chiropractor’s Association. 1983;47-52. 


     93.     Richardson DL, Kappler R, Klatz R. et al.The effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on endogenous opiate concentration (abstract) J AM Osteopath Assoc 1984;84:127.

     94.     Vernon HT, Dhami MSI, Howley TP, Annett R, Spinal Manipulation and Beta- Endorphin: A Controlled Study of the Effect of a Spinal Manipulation on Plasma Beta-Endorphin Levels in Normal Males. J Manip Physiol Ther. 1986;9(2):115- 23 


     95.     Christian GF, Stanton GJ, Sissons D, How HY, Jamison J, Alder B, Fullerton M, Funder JW. Immunoreative ACTH, Beta-endorphin and cortisol levels in plasma following spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1988;13(12):1411-1417. 


     96.     van Breda WM, van Breda JM. A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. J Chirop Res. 1989;5(4):101-103. 


     97.     Rose-Aymon S, Aymon M, Prochaska-Moss G, Moss R, Rebne R, Nielsen K. The relationship between intensity of chiropractic care and the incidence of childhood diseases. J Chirop Res 1989;5(3):70-7 . 


     98.     Kokjohn K, Kaltinger C, Lohr GE, et al. Plasma substance P following spinal manipulation. . In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington,Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1990:105-8. 


     99.     Lohr GE, O’Brien JC, Nodine DL, Brennan PC. Natural killer cells as an outcome of chiropractic treatment efficacy. In: Proceedings of the Internationa1 Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington, Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1990:109-12. 


100. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Kaltinger CJ, Lohr GE, Glendening C, Hondras MA, McGregor M, Triano JJ. Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: Potential role of substance P. J Manip Physio Ther.1991;14(7):399-408.

101. McGregor M, Brennan P,Triano JJ. Immunologic response to manipulation of the lumbar spine. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Arlington,Virginia: Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1991:153-5.

102. Brennan PC,Triano JJ,McGregor M, Kokjohn K, Hondras MA, Brennan PC. Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces: Duration of the effect and association with substance P and Tumor Necrosis Factor. J Manip Physiol Ther. 1992;15(2):83-9.

103. Brennan PC, Graham MA, Triano JJ, Hondras MA, Anderson RJ,. Lymphocyte profiles in patients with chronic low back pain enrolled in a clinical trial. J Manip Physiol Ther 1994 17(4): 219-227.

Immunity References

104. Injeyan, S. Studies on the effects of spinal manipulation on the immune response. Internet WWW 1999; http://www.c3r.org/stephen_injeyan.htm

105. Injeyan J, Ruegg, Injeyan S. Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in normal subjects receiving SMT. International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. October, 2002.

106. Spector NH. Anatomic and Physiologic connections between the central nervous system and the immune systems. Reprinted in: Research Forum 1987;103-17.

107. Fidelibus JC.An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function. J Manip Physiol Ther 1989;12(4):289-292.

108. Allen, JM. The effects of chiropractic on the immune system: A review of the literature. Chiropractic Journal Aust 1993;23:132-5.

109.Kent, C. Neuroimmunology. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association. 1996. Internet. WWW.http://www.4icpa.org/research/psychone.htm








References for Position Statement


1.http://bit.ly/COVID19-DATA

2. www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/munich-security-conference  

3 Brain Behav Immun. 1999 Jun;13(2):80-92. Worry affects the immune response to phobic fear.

4. Thevarajan, I., Nguyen, T.H.O., Koutsakos, M. et al. Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Nat Med (2020).

5.Taub. Cell Immunol. 2008; 252(1-2): 1–6.

6. https://www.wfc.org/website/images/wfc/Latest_News_and_Features/Spinal_Manipulation_Immunity_Review_2020_03_19.pdf


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